Stem Drones Paper Airplane

Plane Aeroplanes   – part 1  Introduction

  1. How planes fly(7 mins)
  2.  World Record Longest Plane Throw:
  3. Paper Plane Expert  http://Paper Aeroplane Expert   
  4. How planes fly(7 mins)

Plane Aeroplanes – part 2 Investigation – Factors affecting the length of flight.

Scientific Report Scaffold

Mini Project 1 – Planes Scientific Report-1.dotxPreview the document

Plane Aeroplanes   – part 3

ientific Report Template Mini Project 1 – Planes Scientific Report.dotxPreview the document
Things to include in your report Variable: List all controlled variable

Results: Use Excel to plot labelled graphs

Discussion: Describe how you ensured the paper plane was launched consistently/same

Identify possible sources of error

Outline ways to improve the experiment

Outline trends in the data


Include a summary of the numerical results


Factors affecting flight – parachutes

  1. How weight distribution in paper Airplanes affect the flight distance. http://How Weight Distribution in Paper Airplanes Affects Flight Distance
  2. Best paper airplane
  3. Parachutes for drones
  4. 259,299 views

    Published on Nov 14, 2017

    The first flight of an advanced supersonic parachute system for Mars 2020—NASA’s next Mars rover. This video is narrated by Ian Clark, the test’s technical lead from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The test took place on Oct. 4, 2017, at NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia. At the moment of full inflation, the parachute is going 1.8 times the speed of sound or nearly 1,300 miles an hour, and generating nearly 35,000 pounds of drag force—drag that would be necessary to help slow a payload down as it was entering the Martian atmosphere. This is the first of several tests in support of NASA’s Mars 2020 mission. For more information, visit .


    Eric Rusch Sr
    Very cool indeed. Amazing how the 30 frames per second can let you see the overall procedure so accurately. Thank you Eric

    Read more


    My daughter’s name is Sonya. In Russian, one way (more of a baby-speak) of making a diminutive out of that name is “Sonik”. So we’re calling her a Supersonic when she does really cool things 🙂


    View 5 replies
    happy I care
    Wow supersonic super teched -up NASA


    Nicely narrated and excellent video. Thanks!


    View 2 replies
    That was interesting.


    View reply
    “But….but….space is fake…….no curvature…….CGI! CGI!”-Flat Earth Idiots


    View 4 replies
    This is impressive; I mean from a physics standpoint, the shear-forces of such a large surface area despite the lower density atmosphere are tremendous. My hat’s off to those engineers & technicians who put in the time and effort to make this happen. Now I have two questions; one related and the other of a different topic: 1. Is this technology in use, or will it be implemented in emergency escape vehicles for the ISS? 2. Has there been any serious progress made toward other forms of propulsion that do not include chemical reactions?

    Read more


    Why test again? Will 2020 be heavier than Curiosity? I thought it will same rover with different instruments, why not use same parachute?


    View 5 replies
    Yea? When we send people for Mars? in 3199? Maybe SpaceX be first…


    View 11 replies
    35,000lbs of force on those little bitty strings. That’s crazy.


    Engineering/Math is a beautiful thing.


    View 2 replies
    Testing a parachute drop of a heavy object is not simple.


    At 1 atmospheric air pressure, that thing would immediately burst into pieces, I guess. This works only because of the lower air density in the upper atmosphere.


    *Grabbing popcorn and scrolling down*. Flattards are so cute, we’re almost in 2018 and they still want to exist like little barking puppies running around. ❤


    Awesome, I’m looking forward to many more of these Mars hardware Testing videos in the future, this is one story I will be following,… every step of the way.


    All I saw was CGI animation


    View reply

Year 8 (Stage 4) History and Symbols of Elements and Periodic Table.

Elements Compounds and Mixtures- History of Elements and Chemical Symbols

Download this file: Yr 8 Elements and Symbols

Part (A) – Elements and the Chemical Symbols  (Reading)


A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions. Atoms of the elements are identical. All atoms of the same element have the same physical properties (size of the atom) and the same chemical properties. Scientists arranged all the elements they knew or they discovered in a periodic table.



A chemical symbol (or a chemical formula)  is a shorthand method of representing an element. Instead of writing out the name of an element, we represent an element name with one or two letters. The periodic table is a chemist’s easy reference guide.

The symbols used by earlier scientists (Dalton and other scientists in 1808 – 1815) are quite different from symbol that appeared in the periodic table published by Mendeleev   1861, scientists used to obtained the modern periodic table.


Part B: WHAT YOU ALREADY KNOW about the SYMBOLS of elements in a periodic table.

  1. A capital letter H or a small letter h is used to represent Hydrogen?
  2. The symbol for chlorine is cl or Cl or CL?
  3. The symbol for carbon is c or C?
  4. The symbol for helium is He or HE or he?
  5. The symbol for calcium is Ca or CA or ca? Why can’t we use C instead?
  6. The symbol for lead is le or LE  or Pb and PB? Why? Explain your answer.
  7. The symbol for  mercury is me or Me or ME or Hg or HG or hg? Why? Explain your answer.
  8. The symbol for  gold is go or Go or GO or Au, or AU?  Why? Explain your answer.
  9. The symbol for silver is  si  or Si or SI or Ag, or AG? Why? Explain your answer.
  10. The symbol for  iron is  ir or Ir or IR  or FE , or Fe? Why? Explain your answer.

– Answer all the questions below:

  1. What is the definition of an element?
  2. What are chemical symbols and why are they used?
  3. Use the links below to complete the table below:
  • Use the  periodic table to find out the symbols of the elements.
  • Use the periodic table to find out whether they are metals, non-metals or metalloids.
  • Use the periodic table to find out whether the elements are solids,  liquids or gases at room temperature.



Number Name of element Chemical Symbol Solids, liquids or gases at room temperature Metals, non-metals or metalloids.
1 hydrogen
2 He
3 Lithium
4 Be
5 Boron
6 C
7 Nitrogen
8 O
9 9luorine
10 Neon
11 Na
12 Magnesium
13 Aluminium
14 Si
15 P
16 S
17 Chlorine
18 Argon
19 Sodium
20 Potassium
21 iron
22 Copper
23 iron
24 gold
25 silver
26 Mercury
27 lead
28 tungsten
29 Nickel
30 Arsenic




  1. Name all elements that are metals in the above table?
  2. Name all elements that are  non-metals in the above table?
  3. Name all elements that are metalloids in the above table?
  4. True or false?
  1. Metals can conduct heat and electricity easily.    T/F
  2. Metals are shiny?   T/F
  3. Non-metals can conduct heat and electricity easily.   T/F
  4. Non- metals are dull.   T/F
  5. Non-metals are found on the left of the periodic table? T/F
  6. Metals are found on the right of the periodic table? T/F
  1. What is the symbol tungsten (usd to make filament of lamp?


Part E   Research.   (Group work) and presentation.  

Choose an element in the table above (one element per student in the group) and answer the questions below. Prepare a minute presentation per student in the group.


Name of element: _____________________ researched by _____________ (student name.


  1. What is the chemical symbol of this element? Why is it given this symbol (your reason for this)?
  2. Who discovered/worked with the element?
  3. Where and when is this element found naturally?
  4. Name two uses of this element.



Year 10 (Stage 5) Health-Water Samples Experiment

Download this file for the experiment:Yr 10 PRAC Water quality Experiment2

HYGIENE       Name of students in the group:____________________________________ Date:


Aim: To observe and identify the microbes found in water samples

Materials:       1 sterile nutrient agar plates (per group)

1 sterile pipettes

Marking pen, sticky tape

Water samples – tap water, untreated dam water, commercial bottled water                       (unopened), water bottle (drunk from), filtered water


  1. Collect 1 sterile agar plates (all poured with the same nutrient agar) per group. (If resources are available, you may be given 5 agar plates per group).
  2. Label each petri dish with the water sample to be placed in it, date, name (write information on the base of the agar plate around the edge)
  3. Leave one plate unopened and seal (label it – control)
  4. For each of the plates use sterile, aseptic techniques to draw up a 0.5ml sample of each water to be tested. Squeeze the 3 or 4 drops of water sample from the pipette onto a clean new cotton bud and ensue . Use this cotton bud to inoculate onto the plate (especially lifting the petri dish lid on angle only to minimise the risk of contamination with microbes from the air). You can draw an shape (or an alphabet) across across the surface of the agar.
  5. Seal petri dish with sticky tape (by winding the tape around the edge at the closure point) and place in the storage tray (with the agar base side upwards)
  6. Incubate the plate at 300C for 48 hours (this decreases the risk of growing human pathogens)
  7. Examine the plate (DO NOT OPEN)
  8. Record the number and types of colonies visible through the petri dish lid
  9. Collate class results on shared google drive (to ensure reliability of your results through repetition for a science experiment)

SAFETY RISK = potential spread of pathogenic organisms

SOLUTION = Incubate at 300C only (not body temperature to minimise chance of growing human pathogens)

= Ensure plates fully sealed and never reopen (to stop exposure to potential pathogens)

= Dispose of plates correctly at end of experiment (all plates placed in a pressure cooker and exposed to heat and pressure to destroy all microbes before disposal)

Results for Hygiene – Water samples



Water tested

Bacterial colonies (estimation) Fungal colonies (estimation)
Number of different types Total number of colonies present Number of different types Total number of colonies present
Unopened bottled water.
Bottled water (used)
Tap water from the Science lab.
local pond


  1. Purpose: What do you want to learn?

2. Hypothesis: What do you predict will happen?

3. Was your hypothesis proved or disproved?

4. a) What is the dependent variables? (The variables (things) that you as a scientist focus your observation on to see how they respond to the changes made to the independent variables).

b) What is the independent variable? (The variable that is changed to allow comparisons).

c) List the controlled variables (Controlled variables are quantities that you as a scientist wants to remain constant so that the experiment can be considered as a fair test).

5. Discussion: Which water sample had the least number or range of microbial colonies?

6.Research why this may be so (hint: look at water treatment for Sydney). You may use the links below for your research.

Videos: Your drinking water (Sydney Water) 3 mins

Sydney water filtration  animation (3 mins)


Sydney Water

The science behind why you should not share the towel.



Yr 11 Electricity and Magnetism – Part 1 Electrostatics Experiments- Answers


Inquiry Question:  How is the static electricity made and how a charged balloon interacts with

pieces of paper, someone’s hair, a stream of water and what happens when it brought next to a wall.?

AIM: To investigate the interaction of a charged balloon with various objects (charged and uncharged



  1. Rub one of the balloons with the cloth. Observe what happens when you place the rubbed side of the balloon which is now charged, close to the pieces of paper, your friend’s hair, a thin stream of water and next to the wall.

Record your observations below.


Activity: Place rubbed balloon close to Observation
a.    to pieces of paper. Balloon attracts the pieces of paper.
b.    your friend’s hair, Balloon attracts hair and the hair repels each other.
c.    a thin stream of water. Thin stream of water attracts/bends towards balloon.
d.    Next to the wall. Balloon is attracted to the wall.



  1. Rub the ebonite rod with the cloth (flannel). Observe what happens when you place the rubbed rod which is now charged, close to the paper and a thin stream of water.

Record your observations below.

Activity: Place rubbed ebonite close to Observation
a.    to pieces of paper. Balloon attracts the pieces of paper.
b.    your friend’s hair, Balloon attracts hair and the hair repels each other.
c.    a thin stream of water. Thin stream of water attracts/bends towards balloon.



  1. Rub the Perspex rod with the cloth (flannel). Observe what happens when you place the rubbed rod which is now charged, close to the paper and a thin stream of water.

Record your observations below.


Activity: Place rubbed Perspex close to Observation
a.    to pieces of paper. Balloon attracts the pieces of paper.
b.    your friend’s hair, Balloon attracts hair and the hair repels each other.
c.    a thin stream of water. Thin stream of water attracts/bends towards balloon.



  1. Stick one of the charged rods onto the watch glass with Blu Tack so that it rotates freely and observe what happens when other charged rods are brought close to but not touching the charged rod.

Record your observations below.

Same charged rods repels and opposite charged rods attracts


  1. Write a conclusion for your experiments:


Experiments have shown that

  • Like signed charges repel each other (Coulomb law of electrostatics)
  • Unlike signed charges attract each other (Coulomb law of electrostatics)
  • Charged object attracts an uncharged objects.
  • For an isolated system, the net charge of the system remains constant
  • Charge Conservation































An electroscope is a very simple instrument that is used to detect the presence and magnitude of electric charge on a body such as static electricity. The type of electroscope detailed in this experiment is called a pith-ball electroscope. It was invented in 1754 by John Canton. The ball was originally made out of a spongy plant material called pith. Any lightweight nonconductive material, such as aluminum foil, can work as a pith ball. The pith ball is charged by touching it to a charged object. Since the ball is nonconductive and the electrons are not free to leave the atoms and move around the ball, when the charged ball is near a positively charged body, or source, the negatively charged electrons are attracted to it and the ball moves towards the source. Conversely, a negatively charged source will repel the electrons, and therefore the ball. Electroscopes can also be used to detect ionizing radiation. In this case, the radiation ionizes the air to be more positively or negatively charged depending on the type of radiation, and the ball will either be attracted or repelled by the source. This is how electroscopes can be used for detecting x-rays, cosmic rays, and radiation from radioactive material.

Year 11 Physics – Electricity and Electromagnetism- Static Electricity



The ancient Greeks discovered that rubbing amber with fur or other objects, it could pick up things like feathers! They may have discovered electricity. Electricity comes from the Greek word elector, which means ‘beaming sun’. This name came about because amber had a rich yellow glow in the sunlight.

 Have you had any of these experiences?

  • You walk to the tap to have a drink. Zap~
  • You put a jacket over your nylon team jumper. Zap~
  • Here comes mum in the car, and you touch the car door handle. Zap~
  • Even at home the carpet can zap you~


Static electricity is made when materials rub together. The more they rub together, the more electricity is made. This means bigger sparks. When you rub or brush a rod with a cloth, you rub off electrons. Having too many electrons makes a negative charge, and having too few electrons makes a positive charge. A spark is formed when electrons jump from where there are too many electrons to where there are too few.

The study of static electricity forces is called electrostatics. An uncharged plastic rod has an equal number of positive and negative charges. The negative charges are called electrons. Because they are at the edge of the atoms, electrons are easy to rub off. When you rub or brush a rod with a cloth, you rub off electrons. Sometimes the electrons are rubbed off the rod onto the cloth. And sometimes the electrons are rubbed off the cloth onto the rod.

Static electricity occurs with many non-metal materials. There is an electric field around objects which have an electric charge.

Year 8 (Stage 4) Elements Compounds and Mixtures- Survey and History of Atoms.

Elements Compounds and Mixtures- 1.What are the early ideas of atom?

Download the word document: Survey and History of Atoms:  Yr 8 Element C M_Survey and history of atoms


Part (A) What you already know- Survey and Discussion.

Answer the questions below:

  1. Matter are made up of tiny particles called atoms.     T/F
  2. All atoms in one matter have the same size and mass. For example, atoms of iron are all of same size and mass.
  3. All atoms of iron have the same chemical properties e.g. rusting  T/F
  4. Atoms in different matter are different in size and shape. For example, atoms of iron are different from atoms of another metal such as magnesium.   T/F
  5. Atoms are always in motion (either vibrating or moving around).  T/F
  6. Rusting of iron is a chemical reaction.    Y/N
  7. Water is a chemical.   T/F
  8. Oxygen is a chemical   T/.F
  9. Do you know what is an element?     Y/N
  10. Do you know what is a compound?    Y/N
  11. Oxygen is an element?    T/F
  12. Do you know all chemicals listed on the periodic table are elements?  Y/N
  13. Water is made up of two elements listed on the periodic table. Name these two elements.       _________ and ________
  14. Do you know the formula for water?   Y/N     Write down the formula for water: _____
  15. Do you know water is not an element but a compound?    Y/N     Do you know why  Y/N
  16. Have you heard about protons, neutrons, electrons?    Y/N
  17. Rocks and minerals are chemicals?   T/F
  18. Gold and copper are minerals and are elements and are listed in the periodic table. .    T/F
  19. Do you know that pencil lead is made from the element, carbon?   Y/N
  20. Carbon dioxide is made when two elements, carbon and oxygen combined in a chemical reaction.   Y/N

PART (B)  HISTORY of ATOMS  – What were the early ideas? Who

HISTORY OF ATOMS – What were the early ideas of atoms?


Democritus (460-370 B.C.) Ancient Greece

His ideas of atoms:


  1. Matter was made up of tiny solid particles he called atomos.
  2. Different matter is made up of atomos that have different size and shape,
  3. Changes in matter are caused by a changing of the grouping of atomos, not in changing the atomos themselves.


Main idea:  Democritus introduce the idea that matter is made up of atoms. All atoms of same matter are identical. Atoms of different matter are different.



Dalton, England:  (1803) Ideas of atom:


  1. Atoms are solid spheres.
  2. Each atom has a mass.
  3. Atoms of same elements have the all same mass.
  4. Atoms are rearranged in a chemical reaction
  5. Compounds are formed when two or more different kinds of atoms join together.



Main idea:

Atoms of same elements have the all same mass, atoms can be rearrangeed in a chemical reaction to form compounds.


JJ Thomson:  (1897)  


  1. He discovered the electron in 1897.
  2. His idea showed  that the atom contained smaller pieces, whereas Dalton had thought that atoms could not be broken down into anything simpler.
  3. His experiment using a cathode ray tube provides more thorough understanding of the properties of an electron (its mass compared with its electrical charge) and its properties.



Ernest Rutherford’s nuclear atom  (1911)



  1. Ernest Rutherford used experimental evidence to show that an atom must contain a central nucleus.
  2. Rutherford assumes that electrons are located outside the nucleus.
  3. This was further evidence that an atom contained smaller particles called subatomic particles
  4. This experiment introduces the nucleus and its properties, and shed more light on the contents of the atom.


Bohr’s electron orbits  (1922)

  1. Niels Bohr further developed Rutherford’s nuclear atom model. He used experimental evidence to support the idea that electrons occupy particular orbits or shells around the nucleus of an atom.
  2. The development of the theory of atomic structure is an example of:
  • How a theory may change as new evidence is found
  • How a scientific explanation is provisional but may become more convincing when predictions based on it are confirmed later on



Year 8 (Stage 4) Elements, Compound and Mixtures – Inquiry Questions


Inquiry Questions
1.What are the early ideas of atom (particle theory/kinetic theory of particles)?
2. What is the smallest unit of an element?
3. What is an element?

How scientists derived symbols for the elements for the first twenty on the periodic table.

What are the symbols of other transition metals – Zinc , Iron , Silver, Gold, Mercury?


4. How elements are classified as metals, non-metals and metalloids on a periodic table?

Do elements in the same group have the same properties?

5. Where are groups 1 and 2 and group 3 and 4 located on the periodic table?

Are groups 1 and 2 metals? Are groups 7 and 8 non-metals?

Which of the elements are gases and solids at room temperature?

6. Where are the subatomic particles –protons, neutrons and electrons (these are smaller than atom) located in an atom? Who discovered these subatomic particles and what technological devices assisted in their discoveries?
7. How the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons and electrons) arranged within the atom e.g Helium atom?
8. How can scientist tell the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures?
9. How models can be used to show the difference between molecules e.g. monoatomic (Helium), diatomic H2, metallic, chains (C3H8). How models can be used to compare structure and diamond?
10. Are these everyday substances such as water, sugar, tea, air, blood and bread classify as elements, compounds or mixtures? What are the composition of each of these substances?
11. Can Hoffmann voltameter show that water is a compound and that it can be decomposed to form oxygen and hydrogen?

Can a new compound be made by heating magnesium in a flame?

12. What are uses and special properties of the ten substances that changed the world? Research the five compounds that changed the world? In which cultures are these materials used?
13. What are the useful properties of silica that allows it to be used in optical fibres? How the optical fibres are used in endoscope and optical fibre communications?
14, What are the reasons for using polymer money in Australia?
15. Is there a need to continually develop new pharmaceuticals? Why should scientists be encouraged to do research into these products?