Year 10 Bionics

BIONICS

Many people today live active and productive lives because faulty parts of body can be replaced by new materials and new devices.  These materials and devices can have a significant impact on a person’s quality of life and the length of life.

 Bionics is the use of electronic and mechanical devices that copy the behaviour of parts of the human body.  Through scientific knowledge gained on the biological systems, engineering systems, and artificial intelligence, scientists continue to extend their understanding of biological principles to solve engineering problems.

Prothesis Is an artificial body part (replacing or supporting a natural part of the body eg – teeth, eye, bone)

 

BIOMATERIALS:

By studying the structure of living things, chemists learn about arrangement of molecules and use this knowledge to produce synthetic materials that are hard or soft, stiff or elastic, just like the real thing. These special materials – able to function with living tissue, with minimal ejection by the body – are called biomaterials.

BIODEVICES:

Engineers make devices  from biomaterials and designed to perform specific functions in the body are generally referred to as biomedical devices or implants.

Scientists use the principles of engineering coupled with a knowledge of the functioning of organs and body systems for development of therapeutic devices such as artificial body parts and systems such as artificial blood vessels, pacemakers, dialysis equipment and artificial limbs.

Prosthetic Devices

Many devices currently used in the human body as artificial organs and prosthetic devices.

An organ is a specialised structure (e.g. heart, kidney, limb, leaf, flower) in an animal or a plant that can perform some specialized function.  These varied parts (organs) sometimes become defective and must be replaced by an artificial organ or a prosthetic device. These replacement devices are constructed of natural or synthetic polymeric materials. Such biomaterials must exhibit good compatibility with the blood and the body fluids and tissues with which they come into contact. Artificial device must closely duplicate the function of the natural organ. In practice, these artificial devices are constructed from a wide variety of materials such as metals, ceramics (including glass and carbon), natural tissues (actually polymeric in nature), and synthetic polymers. Partly due to the wider range of properties available, most of these artificial devices are constructed wholely or partly from natural or synthetic polymers. Obviously the same polymer could not be used for all possible artificial organs or prosthetic devices. Rather, the material to be used must be matched to the specific use requirements. Artificial organs can conveniently be classed into four groups: (I) Bone/Joint Replacements (e.g. hip, knee, finger, total limb), (II) Skin/Soft Tissue Replacements (e.g. skin, breast, muscle), (III) Internal Organs (e.g. heart, kidney, blood vessels, liver, pancreas), and (IV) Sensory Organs (e.g. eye, ear).

 

 

 

Body Part Biomaterial used or

Biomedical device used

Reasons for use

of artificial device

Head, Limbs, (Skeleton) Pins, screws and plates Broken, crushed bone
Knee, Hip, Elbow, Knuckles Artificial joints Degeneration, damaged
Ears Cochlear implants Replace damaged inner ear
Heart Pacemakers Irregular heart beat
Heart, arteries Artificial valves Valves not functioning correctly
Teeth Crowns, dentures Tooth decay, Broken teeth
Eyes Lenses Damage caused by cataracts
Arms. Legs Prosthetic limbs Loss of limb by disease, accident

 

Year 9/Year 10 Stage 5 Universe – Introduction – Survey

Pre Topic Quiz

    1. How many planets are there in our solar system?
    2. Name all the planets (nearest to the furthest to the sun).
    3. Name the outer larger planets.
    4. What are asteroids?
    5. A belief that links the positions of the stars and planets to human destinies. It has no scientific background is called ______ (astrology, astronomy)
    6. The study of the universe is called __________ (astrology, astronomy).
    7. A small, frozen mass of dust and gas revolving around the sun is called: _________   (comets, meteors)
  • A shooting star, observed when a particle of dust enters into the Earth’s atmosphere  is called: ___________    (meteors, comets)
  • The moon is  a _______________. (satelite, star).
  • What is a light year?  ______________
  • What is the scientific theory that explains how the universe started, and then made the stars and galaxies we see today?

 

True or False for Question 12 to 16:

  1. Gravitational force holds the planet in orbit around the sun.   T/F
  2. Gravitational force keeps the moon in orbit around the Earth.   T/F
  3. Ocean tides are the result of gravitational pull of the moon on the seas causing ocean tides on Earth.          T/F
  4. Stars and planets are created by gravitational force pulling together the material from which they are made.                 T/F
  5. Gravitational force pulls you towards the centre of the Earth.  T/F
  6. Newton’s law of Gravitational force states that every object in the universe will experience an attractive force.        T/F

Year 9/Year 10 Stage 5 Universe – Introduction

 

A solar system is a star and all of the objects that travel around it. Planets, moons, asteroids, comets and meteoroids etc. There are likely tens of billions of other solar systems in the Milky Way galaxy alone.

The sun is the star and the planets such as the Earth and other celestial objects (comets, e,t.c) forms one of the many solar systems. Solar systems can also have more than one star. These are called binary star systems if there are two stars, or multi-star systems if there are three or more stars.

The sun and Earth, which are part of the solar system belonging to the huge Milky Way galaxy. It consists of the Sun (our star) and everything that orbits around it. This includes the eight planets and their natural satellites (ca(such as our moon), dwarf planets and their satellites, as well as asteroids, comets and countless particles of smaller debris.

Gravitational force

More information:

 

Universe – You will learn…..

You will learn……

(1) Big Bang Theory and Identify Stages:

  • The Primordial Atom / Singularity
  • The Explosion
  • Expansion

(2) Observations of an expanding universe provide evidence for the Big Bang Theory and allow us to determine the age of the Universe

(3) Compare Big Bang Theory with other theories of the Universe

(4) Research scientists contribution to our understanding of the Universe and how our ideas have been refined through the scientific method. e.g. Albert Einstein, Edwin Hubble, Brian Schmidt

(5) Identify and distinguish between Galaxies, Stars, Solar Systems, Nelulae, Quasars

(6) Develop a flow chart which outlines the life cycle of a star

(7) Interpret an HR diagram and link to star life cycle and relate colours of stars to their age, size and distance from the Earth

(8) Identify types of electromagnetic radiation that help us understand the Universe

(9) Investigate different technologies which have helped us develop our understanding of the Universe (e.g. Tycho Brahe’s use of tools for angular measurements in the night sky. Galileo’s invention of a refracting telescope for astronomy. Newton’s Reflecting telescope. Modern light reflecting telescopes such as the Gemini in Hawaii, radio telescopes such as the Parkes radio Telescope, the new Square Kilometer array to be built in Western Australia. Solar telescopes. Spectroscopes for analysing light from distant stars and galaxies. The Hubble space telescope.

(10) Compare reflecting and refracting telescopes

(11) Describe the enormous distances between stars and the meaning of an Astronomical Unit, a Light-Year and a Parsec.

(12) Outline how astronomers use parallax errors to determine distances in between things in the universe

(12) Draw up a table of distances to planets, the sun, nearby stars, distant stars in the Milky Way Galaxy and other Galaxies.

(13) Relate red and Blue Shifts to the Doppler effect and explain how it provides information about movements in the Universe

(14) Define gravity as the force of attraction between any two objects.

(15) Identify how weak gravity is and that the strength of the force of gravity depends on the masses of the two objects and the distance bewtween them

(i.e. Newtons Law of Gravitation; F = G M M / d2)

(16) Review nebula and protostar and explain how the Sun probably formed with reference to Gravity.

(17) Explain the nature of black holes

Year 10 (Stage 5) Health-Water Samples Experiment

Download this file for the experiment:Yr 10 PRAC Water quality Experiment2

HYGIENE       Name of students in the group:____________________________________ Date:

WATER SAMPLES

Aim: To observe and identify the microbes found in water samples

Materials:       1 sterile nutrient agar plates (per group)

1 sterile pipettes

Marking pen, sticky tape

Water samples – tap water, untreated dam water, commercial bottled water                       (unopened), water bottle (drunk from), filtered water

Method:

  1. Collect 1 sterile agar plates (all poured with the same nutrient agar) per group. (If resources are available, you may be given 5 agar plates per group).
  2. Label each petri dish with the water sample to be placed in it, date, name (write information on the base of the agar plate around the edge)
  3. Leave one plate unopened and seal (label it – control)
  4. For each of the plates use sterile, aseptic techniques to draw up a 0.5ml sample of each water to be tested. Squeeze the 3 or 4 drops of water sample from the pipette onto a clean new cotton bud and ensue . Use this cotton bud to inoculate onto the plate (especially lifting the petri dish lid on angle only to minimise the risk of contamination with microbes from the air). You can draw an shape (or an alphabet) across across the surface of the agar.
  5. Seal petri dish with sticky tape (by winding the tape around the edge at the closure point) and place in the storage tray (with the agar base side upwards)
  6. Incubate the plate at 300C for 48 hours (this decreases the risk of growing human pathogens)
  7. Examine the plate (DO NOT OPEN)
  8. Record the number and types of colonies visible through the petri dish lid
  9. Collate class results on shared google drive (to ensure reliability of your results through repetition for a science experiment)

SAFETY RISK = potential spread of pathogenic organisms

SOLUTION = Incubate at 300C only (not body temperature to minimise chance of growing human pathogens)

= Ensure plates fully sealed and never reopen (to stop exposure to potential pathogens)

= Dispose of plates correctly at end of experiment (all plates placed in a pressure cooker and exposed to heat and pressure to destroy all microbes before disposal)

Results for Hygiene – Water samples

 

 

Water tested

Bacterial colonies (estimation) Fungal colonies (estimation)
Number of different types Total number of colonies present Number of different types Total number of colonies present
Control
Unopened bottled water.
Bottled water (used)
Tap water from the Science lab.
local pond

Questions:

  1. Purpose: What do you want to learn?

2. Hypothesis: What do you predict will happen?

3. Was your hypothesis proved or disproved?

4. a) What is the dependent variables? (The variables (things) that you as a scientist focus your observation on to see how they respond to the changes made to the independent variables).

b) What is the independent variable? (The variable that is changed to allow comparisons).

c) List the controlled variables (Controlled variables are quantities that you as a scientist wants to remain constant so that the experiment can be considered as a fair test).

5. Discussion: Which water sample had the least number or range of microbial colonies?

6.Research why this may be so (hint: look at water treatment for Sydney). You may use the links below for your research.

Videos: Your drinking water (Sydney Water) 3 mins

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rz2DGOMN_n4

Sydney water filtration  animation (3 mins)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5d2yLOHE8QY

Websites:

Sydney Water

The science behind why you should not share the towel.

http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/programs/triplej-breakfast/science-week-towel-test/10126454

 

 

Year 10 Health and Disease -Washing Hand Experiment

Hygiene  -HOW CLEAN ARE YOUR HANDS?  (need to leave experiment over the

next 2 or 3 days and record observations).

Download file: Yr10 Diseases Hygiene and hand washing

 

  •  Hygiene-PART (A) -Hand Washing Experiment
  • Watch the videos in PART (B) Hygiene Videos.
  • Hygiene – Part (C) – Research – Different types of pathogens
  • Hygiene – Part (D) – Research  – Food Safety
  • Hygiene- Part (D) – Research – Definitions

Practical work: Washing Hands

HYGIENE  Part A  Hand washing Experiment

Aim: To observe microbe numbers and types from unwashed and washed hands

Materials:    Sterile nutrient agar plates, marking pen, sticky tape

Hand washing (water, soap bar, soap on tap, disinfectant, hand wipes, hand sanitiser, alcohol)

Method:

  1. Collect sterile agar plates (all poured with the same nutrient agar under the same conditions)
  2. Label each petri dish (write information on the base of the agar plate around the edge .
  3. Leave one plate unopened. Seal and label it = CONTROL
  4. For each plate use aseptic techniques to inoculate the plate:
  • – clean bench with alcohol,
  • bunsen burner running, work near bunsen flame,
  • lifting the petri dish lid on angle only, agar facing downwards
  • – to minimise the risk of contamination with microbes from the air)

5. Lightly press fingers onto agar side labelled unwashed, then wash hands with chosen technique

then press fingers onto labelled side washed

6. Seal petri dish with sticky tape (by winding the tape around the edge at the closure point)

and place in the storage tray (with the agar base side upwards

7. Incubate the plate at 300C for 48 hours (this decreases the risk of growing human pathogens)

8. Examine the plate (DO NOT OPEN)

9. Record the number and types of colonies visible through the petri dish lid

10. Collate class results on google drive (to ensure reliability through repetitions for a science experiment. (Due to cost involved, collating results from different groups may be feasible. If resources are available, you may have 5 sets of agar plates per group instead of one set of agar plate).

SAFETY RISK = potential spread of pathogenic organisms

SOLUTION :

1. Incubate at 300C only (not body temperature 370C to minimise chance of growing human pathogens).

2. Ensure plates fully sealed and never reopen (to stop exposure to potential pathogens).

3.  Dispose of plates correctly at end of experiment (all plates placed in a pressure cooker and

exposed to heat and pressure to destroy all microbes before disposal)

Results:

 

 

Hand washing tested

Bacterial colonies (estimation) Fungal colonies (estimation)
Number of different types Total number of colonies present Number of different types Total number of colonies present
Unwashed
Control
Washing method:

·       Water only

·       Soap bar

·       Soap on tap

·       Hand wipes

·       Disinfectant

·       Alcohol

·       Hand sanitiser

Questions

 

  1. Purpose: What do you want to learn?

________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Hypothesis: What do you predict will happen?

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

3(a) List the controlled variables (Controlled variables are quantities that you as a scientist wants to remain constant so that the experiment can be considered as a fair test).

____________________________________________________________________________

b) What is the independent variable? (The variable that is changed to allow comparisons).

___________________________________________________________________________

c) What is the dependent variables? (The variables (things) that you as a scientist focus your

observation on to see how they respond to the changes made to the independent variables).

 

4. Was your hypothesis proved or disproved?___________________________________________________

5.Explain any differences in the bacterial cultures on the hand sanitizer and soap and water agar plates. ­­­

Which is a better method for cleaning your hands?

Differences: ________________________________________________________________________

Better method: _____________________________________________________________________

6.From this experiment, what can you conclude about the effectiveness of hand-washing with soap and

water and using hand sanitizer to reduce the bacteria present on your hands?

 

___________________________________________________________________________________

7.How would you do this experiment differently if you carried it out again?

__________________________________________________________________________________

8.Discussion: Which hand washing method was the most successful? Research why this may be so (hint: look at hygiene control in hospitals)  ____________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

PART B HYGIENE Videos:  (3 mins)  Growing Bacteria https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A0b6_kg2oMc

Keep Everything Clean (5 mins)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3FMZbIoPn2w

Spangler Science – Growing Bacteria cool science (5 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LSZE6WofLAs

PART C HYGIENE  – RESEARCH – Different types of PATHOGENS  and how to interpret the colonies on the agar plate.

Use the website below to complete all the questions.

https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/references/interpreting-agar-plates

  1. Complete the table below:
Characteristics used to identify the bacteria/fungi colonies Meaning
Form What is the basic shape of the colony? For example, circular, filamentous
Elevation
Margin
Surface
Opacity
Pigmentation

 

  1. Complete the table below:
Types of pathogen Pictures of colonies on agar plate Description
Bacteria
Fungi (yeast)
Moulds
Other types of pathogens

 

 

Part (D) Hygiene- Research – Food Safety

https://www.rd.com/health/healthy-eating/food-poisoning-food-contamination/

  1. A rare burger might sound juicy and delicious. Should you eat it?
  2. Why should you wash the rock melon as soon as you get home and then store it in the fridge?
  3. You should not leave potato salad outside the fridge for more than 2 hours. Why?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part (E) Research – Micro-organisms that can make you sick.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/infectious-diseases/in-depth/germs/ART-20045289?p=1

 

Germs live everywhere. You can find germs (microbes) in the air; on food, plants and animals; in soil and water — on just about every other surface, including your body.

 

Most germs won’t harm you. Your immune system protects you against infectious agents. However, some germs are formidable adversaries because they’re constantly mutating to breach your immune system’s defenses. Knowing how germs work can increase your chances of avoiding infection.

Infectious agents come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Categories include:

  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Fungi
  • Protozoans
  • Helminths

Write definitions  for the above infectious agents.