Starch Test Experiment

Experiment 1: Testing for starch in food (bread, potato etc) and in a leaf.



Materials Tested Colour change Labelled diagram (or photographs)
Bread  dark blue  

Potato dark blue
Leaf only the green part of the leaf turns dark blue.


EXPERIMENT 2: Is light needed for photosynthesis?



In the experiment above, the middle part of the leaf is covered by a piece of aluminium foil while the stalk is still attached to the plant.  The plant is left under the sunlight to allow the photosynthesis process to continue to take place and glucose is made in the uncovered part of the leaf. This glucose is converted into starch and stored in the leaf.  (Glucose is a simple molecule and these molecules combined to make large complex molecules called starch).

What is happening to the covered part of the plant?

Glass is transparent and allows light energy to travel through it. However,  aluminium is opaque and does not allow light to travel through it. This part of leaf covered by aluminium will not receive the needed sunlight and the leaf will not be able to carry the photosynthesis process.  This means the covered part of the leaf will not be able to make starch while the uncovered part of the leaf continues to make starch.

What is photosynthesis?

 Photosynthesis refers to the process where plant takes in the carbon dioxide produced by all breathing organisms and reintroduces oxygen into the atmosphere. Photosynthesis is the process used by plants, algae and certain bacteria to convert energy from sunlight and turn it into chemical energy.

Chemical equation of photosynthesis:


  1. Why part of the leaf is covered with a piece of aluminium foil?
  2.  Why was the plant left in the sun?
  3. What happens when the leaf is tested for the presence of starch?
  4.  Explain why a part of the leaf covered by the foil will not show the presence of starch?
  5. How does this experiment support the idea that sunlight is needed for photosynthesis?




Hibiscus Flower Dissection

 Hibiscus Flower dissection

  (1) Photograph of labelled parts of a Hibiscus Flower:

Parts of the flower. Number Colour
sepals     5    green
petals     5   pink
Stamens   many (hundreds)   light pink
Style    5    light pink
Stigma     5    dark pink

 Hand-drawn labelled parts of a Hibiscus Flower:



(2) Hibiscus Flower (Lengthwise -more detailed diagram)


Parts of a Hibiscus Flower:

SEPALS (found at the end of Calyx)

The pointed ends called sepals ae found at the bottom of the flower. The green sepals protects the bud of the flower.


  • Every flower has multiple petals, which differ in colour depending on the species.
  • The colourful petals attracts animals and insects. This attraction helps ensure the pollination of the flower.
  • The bees and the animals (birds) are called the pollinators and they help to transfer the pollens to the stigma and this process is called pollination.

Female Reproductive organs (pistil)

  • The pistil is the female part of the flower; its function is to produce seeds.
  • The pistil consists of the ovary, stigma and style.  The pistil is a long tubular organ.
  • The stigma is where pollen is collected and it at the top of the pistil. In the middle is the style. This is the section that the pollen travels down to the ovary.
  • The ovary lies at the bottom of the blossom. In some flowers there are several ovaries, but the hibiscus has just one.
  • After fertilisation (pollen travels down to meet the ovules (eggs), the ovary develops to become the fruit and the ovule develops to a seed.


Male Reproductive organs (stamen)

  • The male part of the flower is the stamen and is responsible for producing pollen.
  • Anthers are two tube-shaped objects that release the pollen. The anther is usually, but not always, yellow.
  • Anthers sit on a long thin tube called a filament. Together, these organs make up the male part of the flower known as the stamen (anther + filament = stamen). Some flowers have a few stamens, but the hibiscus flowers have hundreds.



Year 7/Year 8 Stage 4 Atomic Theory – Time line Year 7/ Year 8



Scientists contribution to help us understand atomic theory. :

  1.   John Dalton 1803: All elements are made up of atoms
  2.   JJ Thomson 1897: discovered electrons is negatively charged.
  3.   Rutherford 1898 -1911: Estimated size of atom and concluded that mass of atom is concentrated in the nucleus.
  4. Niels  Bohr 1922: explained that electrons are found at the edge of an atom. electrons are orbiting nucleus. Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus.

Images from:



Summarised from :

Year 9/Year 10 Stage 5 Universe



Universe -Introduction

Review /Summary

Universe Introduction


Universe Pre-topic quiz



Stars Formation

Review /Summary


Stars Formation


Stars Formation



Telescope and Evidence

Review /Summary


Telescope and Evidence



Telescope and Evidence



Scientists and Models/Theory of Universe

Review /Summary


Scientists and Models/Theory of Universe


Scientists and Models/Theory of Universe



Extension Work


Stem Drones Paper Airplane

Plane Aeroplanes   – part 1  Introduction

  1. How planes fly(7 mins)
  2.  World Record Longest Plane Throw:
  3. Paper Plane Expert  http://Paper Aeroplane Expert   
  4. How planes fly(7 mins)

Plane Aeroplanes – part 2 Investigation – Factors affecting the length of flight.

Scientific Report Scaffold

Mini Project 1 – Planes Scientific Report-1.dotxPreview the document

Plane Aeroplanes   – part 3

ientific Report Template Mini Project 1 – Planes Scientific Report.dotxPreview the document
Things to include in your report Variable: List all controlled variable

Results: Use Excel to plot labelled graphs

Discussion: Describe how you ensured the paper plane was launched consistently/same

Identify possible sources of error

Outline ways to improve the experiment

Outline trends in the data


Include a summary of the numerical results


Factors affecting flight – parachutes

  1. How weight distribution in paper Airplanes affect the flight distance. http://How Weight Distribution in Paper Airplanes Affects Flight Distance
  2. Best paper airplane
  3. Parachutes for drones
  4. 259,299 views

    Published on Nov 14, 2017

    The first flight of an advanced supersonic parachute system for Mars 2020—NASA’s next Mars rover. This video is narrated by Ian Clark, the test’s technical lead from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The test took place on Oct. 4, 2017, at NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia. At the moment of full inflation, the parachute is going 1.8 times the speed of sound or nearly 1,300 miles an hour, and generating nearly 35,000 pounds of drag force—drag that would be necessary to help slow a payload down as it was entering the Martian atmosphere. This is the first of several tests in support of NASA’s Mars 2020 mission. For more information, visit .


    Eric Rusch Sr
    Very cool indeed. Amazing how the 30 frames per second can let you see the overall procedure so accurately. Thank you Eric

    Read more


    My daughter’s name is Sonya. In Russian, one way (more of a baby-speak) of making a diminutive out of that name is “Sonik”. So we’re calling her a Supersonic when she does really cool things 🙂


    View 5 replies
    happy I care
    Wow supersonic super teched -up NASA


    Nicely narrated and excellent video. Thanks!


    View 2 replies
    That was interesting.


    View reply
    “But….but….space is fake…….no curvature…….CGI! CGI!”-Flat Earth Idiots


    View 4 replies
    This is impressive; I mean from a physics standpoint, the shear-forces of such a large surface area despite the lower density atmosphere are tremendous. My hat’s off to those engineers & technicians who put in the time and effort to make this happen. Now I have two questions; one related and the other of a different topic: 1. Is this technology in use, or will it be implemented in emergency escape vehicles for the ISS? 2. Has there been any serious progress made toward other forms of propulsion that do not include chemical reactions?

    Read more


    Why test again? Will 2020 be heavier than Curiosity? I thought it will same rover with different instruments, why not use same parachute?


    View 5 replies
    Yea? When we send people for Mars? in 3199? Maybe SpaceX be first…


    View 11 replies
    35,000lbs of force on those little bitty strings. That’s crazy.


    Engineering/Math is a beautiful thing.


    View 2 replies
    Testing a parachute drop of a heavy object is not simple.


    At 1 atmospheric air pressure, that thing would immediately burst into pieces, I guess. This works only because of the lower air density in the upper atmosphere.


    *Grabbing popcorn and scrolling down*. Flattards are so cute, we’re almost in 2018 and they still want to exist like little barking puppies running around. ❤


    Awesome, I’m looking forward to many more of these Mars hardware Testing videos in the future, this is one story I will be following,… every step of the way.


    All I saw was CGI animation


    View reply

Year 8 (Stage 4) History and Symbols of Elements and Periodic Table.

Elements Compounds and Mixtures- History of Elements and Chemical Symbols

Download this file: Yr 8 Elements and Symbols

Part (A) – Elements and the Chemical Symbols  (Reading)


A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions. Atoms of the elements are identical. All atoms of the same element have the same physical properties (size of the atom) and the same chemical properties. Scientists arranged all the elements they knew or they discovered in a periodic table.



A chemical symbol (or a chemical formula)  is a shorthand method of representing an element. Instead of writing out the name of an element, we represent an element name with one or two letters. The periodic table is a chemist’s easy reference guide.

The symbols used by earlier scientists (Dalton and other scientists in 1808 – 1815) are quite different from symbol that appeared in the periodic table published by Mendeleev   1861, scientists used to obtained the modern periodic table.


Part B: WHAT YOU ALREADY KNOW about the SYMBOLS of elements in a periodic table.

  1. A capital letter H or a small letter h is used to represent Hydrogen?
  2. The symbol for chlorine is cl or Cl or CL?
  3. The symbol for carbon is c or C?
  4. The symbol for helium is He or HE or he?
  5. The symbol for calcium is Ca or CA or ca? Why can’t we use C instead?
  6. The symbol for lead is le or LE  or Pb and PB? Why? Explain your answer.
  7. The symbol for  mercury is me or Me or ME or Hg or HG or hg? Why? Explain your answer.
  8. The symbol for  gold is go or Go or GO or Au, or AU?  Why? Explain your answer.
  9. The symbol for silver is  si  or Si or SI or Ag, or AG? Why? Explain your answer.
  10. The symbol for  iron is  ir or Ir or IR  or FE , or Fe? Why? Explain your answer.

– Answer all the questions below:

  1. What is the definition of an element?
  2. What are chemical symbols and why are they used?
  3. Use the links below to complete the table below:
  • Use the  periodic table to find out the symbols of the elements.
  • Use the periodic table to find out whether they are metals, non-metals or metalloids.
  • Use the periodic table to find out whether the elements are solids,  liquids or gases at room temperature.



Number Name of element Chemical Symbol Solids, liquids or gases at room temperature Metals, non-metals or metalloids.
1 hydrogen
2 He
3 Lithium
4 Be
5 Boron
6 C
7 Nitrogen
8 O
9 9luorine
10 Neon
11 Na
12 Magnesium
13 Aluminium
14 Si
15 P
16 S
17 Chlorine
18 Argon
19 Sodium
20 Potassium
21 iron
22 Copper
23 iron
24 gold
25 silver
26 Mercury
27 lead
28 tungsten
29 Nickel
30 Arsenic




  1. Name all elements that are metals in the above table?
  2. Name all elements that are  non-metals in the above table?
  3. Name all elements that are metalloids in the above table?
  4. True or false?
  1. Metals can conduct heat and electricity easily.    T/F
  2. Metals are shiny?   T/F
  3. Non-metals can conduct heat and electricity easily.   T/F
  4. Non- metals are dull.   T/F
  5. Non-metals are found on the left of the periodic table? T/F
  6. Metals are found on the right of the periodic table? T/F
  1. What is the symbol tungsten (usd to make filament of lamp?


Part E   Research.   (Group work) and presentation.  

Choose an element in the table above (one element per student in the group) and answer the questions below. Prepare a minute presentation per student in the group.


Name of element: _____________________ researched by _____________ (student name.


  1. What is the chemical symbol of this element? Why is it given this symbol (your reason for this)?
  2. Who discovered/worked with the element?
  3. Where and when is this element found naturally?
  4. Name two uses of this element.



Year 10 Forensic Science

Forensic Science –An overview of Forensic Science Degrees.

Forensic Science Technicians

A simplified guide to forensic Science 

The term forensic science (or forensis, in Latin), which means a public discussion or debate. In the modern context,  forensic applies to courts or the judicial system. Combine that with science, and forensic science means applying scientific methods and processes to solving crimes. Forensic science uses modern technologies to look for scientific evidence in a mixture of scientific fields, tasks, occupations and services, which may include anthropology, ballistics, DNA, chemical (drug) analysis in laboratories, crime scene examination, fingerprints, computer forensics, digital imaging, audio and video analysis. The forensic scientist must have not only the means to analyse chemicals found at the scene and on the suspects but enough knowledge of the uses of the chemicals so that the meaning of finding a chemical somewhere is known.