Stage 4 Atomic Theory – Time line Year 7/ Year 8



Scientists contribution to help us understand atomic theory. :

  1.   John Dalton 1803: All elements are made up of atoms
  2.   JJ Thomson 1897: discovered electrons is negatively charged.
  3.   Rutherford 1898 -1911: Estimated size of atom and concluded that mass of atom is concentrated in the nucleus.
  4. Niels  Bohr 1922: explained that electrons are found at the edge of an atom. electrons are orbiting nucleus. Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus.

Images from:



Summarised from :

Universe -Introduction and Big Bang theory Stage 5 (Yr 9-Yr10)


Universe – Part 1 -Introduction and Big Bang Theory

Lesson Introduction – Pre lesson survey and Quiz
Summary /Main ideas
Extension work
    1. How many planets are there in our solar system?
    2. Name all the planets (nearest to the furthest to the sun).
    3. Name the outer larger planets.
    4. What are asteroids?
    5. A belief that links the positions of the stars and planets to human destinies. It has no scientific background is called ______ (astrology, astronomy)
    6. The study of the universe is called __________ (astrology, astronomy).
    7. A small, frozen mass of dust and gas revolving around the sun is called: _________   (comets, meteors)
  • A shooting star, observed when a particle of dust enters into the Earth’s atmosphere  is called: ___________    (meteors, comets)
  • The moon is  a _______________. (satelite, star).
  • What is a light year?  ______________
  • What is the scientific theory that explains how the universe started, and then made the stars and galaxies we see today?


True or False for Question 12 to 16:

  1. Gravitational force holds the planet in orbit around the sun.   T/F
  2. Gravitational force keeps the moon in orbit around the Earth.   T/F
  3. Ocean tides are the result of gravitational pull of the moon on the seas causing ocean tides on Earth.          T/F
  4. Stars and planets are created by gravitational force pulling together the material from which they are made.                 T/F
  5. Gravitational force pulls you towards the centre of the Earth.  T/F
  6. Newton’s law of Gravitational force states that every object in the universe will experience an attractive force.        T/F


2.1.3  Quiz – Universe (astronomy and solar system)

Complete the quiz.

Solar System


Solar system consists of ______________ planets and other smaller objects such as minor planets, comets, meteoroids and cosmic dust. Pluto ___________ is/is not a planet.

The first four inner planets (M_______________ , V______________ , E____________ , and M__________) are relatively small and resemble the Earth in composition (rocky).

The next four planets (J____________ , S_______________ , U____________ , and N______________ are much larger planets and are very gaseous in nature.

All the objects in our Solar System orbit the S____________. The ___________ is so big that everything in our Solar System could fit in it many times.

Many scientists believe that our Solar System is over 4.6 b____________   years old.


Part B:          Use the following words to complete the questions

Star                  Solar system                  Satellite                   Milky way               Meteoroids                  Meteorites              Meteor                     Galaxy          Constellation       Comet


  1. _______________ : small, frozen mass of dust and gas revolving around the sun
  2. ___________________ :   A grouping of stars which have been given names by ancient astronomers because of the way they look.
  3. __________________________:     A group of stars, gas and dust held together by gravity.
  4. _____________________________: A shooting star, observed when a particle of dust enters into the Earth’s atmosphere .  
  5. _______________________________: An object from Outer Space, such as a rock, that falls into the Earth and lands on it’s surface.    
  6. ______________________________: Any small object in Outer Space, such as dust or a rock.
  7. _______________________________: Our Galaxy. (The word “Galaxy” actually means milky way in Greek).
  8. _______________________: A small object orbiting a larger one. .   The moon is a satellite orbiting a larger Earth. There are many electronic objects that orbit the Earth such as Global Positioning Satellite (GPS), Communication satellite, geostationary satellite.
  9. ____________________________:   The system of planets and other objects orbiting the star Sol, which happens to be our Sun.
  10. _______________________: A self-luminous object that shines through the release of energy produced by nuclear reactions at its core.



Part C   Use the following words to complete this section.

.         Astronomers,         Electromagnetic radiation,   Light Year,       Eclipse,        Cosmology,         Astrology

  1. ______________________: A belief that links the positions of the stars and planets to human destinies. It has no scientific background..
  2. _____________________ : the study of the universe
  3. _______________________: when our view of one object in the sky is blocked by either another object or the Earth’s shadow.
  4. ____________________ : The distance which a ray of light would travel in one year. This is about 6,000,000,000,000 (6 trillion) miles and is the unit used by astronomer to measure distance in space.
  5. ________________________________ :   radiation emitted by objects in space.  
  6. __________________________ use the radiation emitted by objects to determine star distance

Stem Drones Paper Airplane

Plane Aeroplanes   – part 1  Introduction

  1. How planes fly(7 mins)
  2.  World Record Longest Plane Throw:
  3. Paper Plane Expert  http://Paper Aeroplane Expert   
  4. How planes fly(7 mins)

Plane Aeroplanes – part 2 Investigation – Factors affecting the length of flight.

Scientific Report Scaffold

Mini Project 1 – Planes Scientific Report-1.dotxPreview the document

Plane Aeroplanes   – part 3

ientific Report Template Mini Project 1 – Planes Scientific Report.dotxPreview the document
Things to include in your report Variable: List all controlled variable

Results: Use Excel to plot labelled graphs

Discussion: Describe how you ensured the paper plane was launched consistently/same

Identify possible sources of error

Outline ways to improve the experiment

Outline trends in the data


Include a summary of the numerical results


Factors affecting flight – parachutes

  1. How weight distribution in paper Airplanes affect the flight distance. http://How Weight Distribution in Paper Airplanes Affects Flight Distance
  2. Best paper airplane
  3. Parachutes for drones
  4. 259,299 views

    Published on Nov 14, 2017

    The first flight of an advanced supersonic parachute system for Mars 2020—NASA’s next Mars rover. This video is narrated by Ian Clark, the test’s technical lead from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The test took place on Oct. 4, 2017, at NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia. At the moment of full inflation, the parachute is going 1.8 times the speed of sound or nearly 1,300 miles an hour, and generating nearly 35,000 pounds of drag force—drag that would be necessary to help slow a payload down as it was entering the Martian atmosphere. This is the first of several tests in support of NASA’s Mars 2020 mission. For more information, visit .


    Eric Rusch Sr
    Very cool indeed. Amazing how the 30 frames per second can let you see the overall procedure so accurately. Thank you Eric

    Read more


    My daughter’s name is Sonya. In Russian, one way (more of a baby-speak) of making a diminutive out of that name is “Sonik”. So we’re calling her a Supersonic when she does really cool things 🙂


    View 5 replies
    happy I care
    Wow supersonic super teched -up NASA


    Nicely narrated and excellent video. Thanks!


    View 2 replies
    That was interesting.


    View reply
    “But….but….space is fake…….no curvature…….CGI! CGI!”-Flat Earth Idiots


    View 4 replies
    This is impressive; I mean from a physics standpoint, the shear-forces of such a large surface area despite the lower density atmosphere are tremendous. My hat’s off to those engineers & technicians who put in the time and effort to make this happen. Now I have two questions; one related and the other of a different topic: 1. Is this technology in use, or will it be implemented in emergency escape vehicles for the ISS? 2. Has there been any serious progress made toward other forms of propulsion that do not include chemical reactions?

    Read more


    Why test again? Will 2020 be heavier than Curiosity? I thought it will same rover with different instruments, why not use same parachute?


    View 5 replies
    Yea? When we send people for Mars? in 3199? Maybe SpaceX be first…


    View 11 replies
    35,000lbs of force on those little bitty strings. That’s crazy.


    Engineering/Math is a beautiful thing.


    View 2 replies
    Testing a parachute drop of a heavy object is not simple.


    At 1 atmospheric air pressure, that thing would immediately burst into pieces, I guess. This works only because of the lower air density in the upper atmosphere.


    *Grabbing popcorn and scrolling down*. Flattards are so cute, we’re almost in 2018 and they still want to exist like little barking puppies running around. ❤


    Awesome, I’m looking forward to many more of these Mars hardware Testing videos in the future, this is one story I will be following,… every step of the way.


    All I saw was CGI animation


    View reply

Year 8 (Stage 4) History and Symbols of Elements and Periodic Table.

Elements Compounds and Mixtures- History of Elements and Chemical Symbols

Download this file: Yr 8 Elements and Symbols

Part (A) – Elements and the Chemical Symbols  (Reading)


A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions. Atoms of the elements are identical. All atoms of the same element have the same physical properties (size of the atom) and the same chemical properties. Scientists arranged all the elements they knew or they discovered in a periodic table.



A chemical symbol (or a chemical formula)  is a shorthand method of representing an element. Instead of writing out the name of an element, we represent an element name with one or two letters. The periodic table is a chemist’s easy reference guide.

The symbols used by earlier scientists (Dalton and other scientists in 1808 – 1815) are quite different from symbol that appeared in the periodic table published by Mendeleev   1861, scientists used to obtained the modern periodic table.


Part B: WHAT YOU ALREADY KNOW about the SYMBOLS of elements in a periodic table.

  1. A capital letter H or a small letter h is used to represent Hydrogen?
  2. The symbol for chlorine is cl or Cl or CL?
  3. The symbol for carbon is c or C?
  4. The symbol for helium is He or HE or he?
  5. The symbol for calcium is Ca or CA or ca? Why can’t we use C instead?
  6. The symbol for lead is le or LE  or Pb and PB? Why? Explain your answer.
  7. The symbol for  mercury is me or Me or ME or Hg or HG or hg? Why? Explain your answer.
  8. The symbol for  gold is go or Go or GO or Au, or AU?  Why? Explain your answer.
  9. The symbol for silver is  si  or Si or SI or Ag, or AG? Why? Explain your answer.
  10. The symbol for  iron is  ir or Ir or IR  or FE , or Fe? Why? Explain your answer.

– Answer all the questions below:

  1. What is the definition of an element?
  2. What are chemical symbols and why are they used?
  3. Use the links below to complete the table below:
  • Use the  periodic table to find out the symbols of the elements.
  • Use the periodic table to find out whether they are metals, non-metals or metalloids.
  • Use the periodic table to find out whether the elements are solids,  liquids or gases at room temperature.



Number Name of element Chemical Symbol Solids, liquids or gases at room temperature Metals, non-metals or metalloids.
1 hydrogen
2 He
3 Lithium
4 Be
5 Boron
6 C
7 Nitrogen
8 O
9 9luorine
10 Neon
11 Na
12 Magnesium
13 Aluminium
14 Si
15 P
16 S
17 Chlorine
18 Argon
19 Sodium
20 Potassium
21 iron
22 Copper
23 iron
24 gold
25 silver
26 Mercury
27 lead
28 tungsten
29 Nickel
30 Arsenic




  1. Name all elements that are metals in the above table?
  2. Name all elements that are  non-metals in the above table?
  3. Name all elements that are metalloids in the above table?
  4. True or false?
  1. Metals can conduct heat and electricity easily.    T/F
  2. Metals are shiny?   T/F
  3. Non-metals can conduct heat and electricity easily.   T/F
  4. Non- metals are dull.   T/F
  5. Non-metals are found on the left of the periodic table? T/F
  6. Metals are found on the right of the periodic table? T/F
  1. What is the symbol tungsten (usd to make filament of lamp?


Part E   Research.   (Group work) and presentation.  

Choose an element in the table above (one element per student in the group) and answer the questions below. Prepare a minute presentation per student in the group.


Name of element: _____________________ researched by _____________ (student name.


  1. What is the chemical symbol of this element? Why is it given this symbol (your reason for this)?
  2. Who discovered/worked with the element?
  3. Where and when is this element found naturally?
  4. Name two uses of this element.



Year 10 Forensic Science

Forensic Science –An overview of Forensic Science Degrees.

Forensic Science Technicians

A simplified guide to forensic Science 

The term forensic science (or forensis, in Latin), which means a public discussion or debate. In the modern context,  forensic applies to courts or the judicial system. Combine that with science, and forensic science means applying scientific methods and processes to solving crimes. Forensic science uses modern technologies to look for scientific evidence in a mixture of scientific fields, tasks, occupations and services, which may include anthropology, ballistics, DNA, chemical (drug) analysis in laboratories, crime scene examination, fingerprints, computer forensics, digital imaging, audio and video analysis. The forensic scientist must have not only the means to analyse chemicals found at the scene and on the suspects but enough knowledge of the uses of the chemicals so that the meaning of finding a chemical somewhere is known.

Forensic Science – Observing and Inferences

Observing and Inferences – download file: Yr10 Forensic_1 What happened_student

Part A: What happened?

Use the information given below to answer questions 1 to 8.


  1. List all the different types of footprints in the diagram 
  2. How many people were there?
  3.   Describe the directions taken by the person.  
  4.   What caused the wavy lines?  
  5.  Did the person drive the car?  
  6.   Which direction did the car go?   
  7.   What animals were there at the beginning?  
  8.   How do you know what happened to the bird? 


Part B  Dinosaur 1 or Dinosaur 2

The diagram below shows a pattern of footprints in the siltstone, presumably left by two dinosaurs.

Study the footprints and answer questions 1 to 9.

  1. How many toes did each dinosaur have?
  2. How can the toes on a footprint tell you which way an animal was walking?
  3. In which direction (left to right or right to left) was each dinosaur walking? Were they walking on two legs or four legs?
  4. Which of the two dinosaurs do you think is larger? Give two reasons for your answer. How could you estimate their size?
  5. Both dinosaurs started to run. Which do you think ran first?
  6. Which dinosaur caught the other one, before the scuffle or fight?
  7. Only one set of footprints is shown leaving the fight. What evidence would you look for to see if one animal had been killed or dragged away? Is that evidence in the diagram?
  8. What other evidence would you look for to allow you to build up an accurate picture of what happened?
  9. What do you think happened? List more than one outcome if you wish.